Curriculum Evaluation

Curriculum Evaluation

The model of curriculum by Saylor, Lewis and Alexander

 

Disusun Oleh :

Muhammad Izzatul Faqih       (09312244025)

BAB I

PENDAHULUAN

  1.  Latar Belakang Masalah

Evaluasi merupakan bagian dari sistem manajemen yaitu perencanaan, organisasi, pelaksanaan, monitoring dan evaluasi. Kurikulum juga dirancang dari tahap perencanaan, organisasi kemudian pelaksanaan dan akhirnya monitoring dan evaluasi. Tanpa evaluasi, maka tidak akan mengetahui bagaimana kondisi kurikulum tersebut dalam rancangan, pelaksanaan serta hasilnya. Tulisan ini akan membahas mengenai pengertian evaluasi kurikulum, dan model kurikulum menurut Saylor, Alexander dan Lewis.

  1. Rumusan Masalah
    1. Apa yang dimaksud dengan Evaluasi dan Kurikulum ?
    2. Bagaimana model kurikulum menurut Saylor, Alexander dan Lewis?

BAB II

PEMBAHASAN

  1. A.    Definisi Evaluasi dan Kurikulum
    1. Definisi Evaluasi

Menurut Said Hamid Hasan (1988) pembicaraan mengenai evaluasi kurikulum dapat menjadi debat yang tak menentu arahnya apabila tidak ada kesepakatan mengenai istilah yang dipergunakan. Oleh karena itu, pembahasan mengenai istilah-istilah kurikulum dan evaluasi secara terpisah dirasa perlu sebelum membahas konsep evaluasi kurikulum. Lebih lanjut ia mengatakan bahwa evaluasi adalah suatu proses pemberian pertimbangan mengenai nilai dan arti dari sesuatu yang dipertimbangkan. Sesuatu yang dipertimbangkan tersebut dapat berupa orang, benda, kegiatan, keadaan, atau suatu kesatuan tertentu. Pemberian pertimbangan mengenai nilai dan arti tersebut haruslah berdasarkan kriteria tertentu; jadi tidak dapat dilakukan asal saja. Tanpa kriteria yang jelas pertimbangan nilai dan arti yang diberikan bukanlah suatu proses yang dapat diklasifikasikan sebagai evaluasi.

Sesuai dengan Peter F. Oliva (1992) Evaluation is the mean of determining what needs improvement and for providing a basis for effecting that improvement. Jadi evaluasi adalah  menentukan apa yang perlu diperbaiki dan untuk menyediakan dasar bagi yang mempengaruhi perbaikan.

Sedangkan pengertian evaluasi menurut Morissn dalam Oemar Hamalik (1993) disebutkan bahwa evaluasi adalah perbuatan pertimbangan berdasarkan perangkat kriteria yang disepakati dan dipertanggunjawabkan.

Jadi sesuai tiga pendapat diatas dapat disimpulkan bahwa evaluasi adalah adalah proses pemberian pertimbangan mengenai nilai dan arti dari sesuatu yang dipertimbangkan berdasarkan perangkat kriteria yang disepakati dan dipertanggunjawabkan.

  1. Definisi Kurikulum

Sesuai dengan J. Gallen Saylor dan William M. Alexander dalam Nasution (2003) “The Curriculum is sum total of school’s efforts to influence learning, whether in the classroom, on the playground, or out of school.” Jadi segala usaha sekolah untuk mempengaruhi anak belajar, apakah dalam ruangan kelas, dihalaman sekolah atau diluar sekolah termasuk kurikulum. Kurikulum meliputi juga apa yang disebut kegatan ekstra-kurikuler.

Di lain pihak pengertian kurikulum menurut Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 dalam Mansur Muslich (2007) adalah seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan mengenai tujuan, isi dan bahan pelajaran serta cara yang digunakan sebagi pedoman penyelenggaraan kegiatan pembelajaran untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan tertentu.

Menurut William B. Rangan dalam Nasution (2003) menjelaskan arti kurikulum sebagi berikut: “The tendency in recent decades has ben to use the term in a broader sense to refer the whole live and program of the school. The term is used… to include all the experience of children for which the school accepts the responsibility. It donates the results of efforts on the parts of adults of the community, and the nation to bring the children the finest, most whole some influences that exist in the culture.” Rangan menggunakan arti kurikulum dalam arti yang luas, yang meliputi seluruh program dan kehidupan dalam sekolah, yakni segala penglaman anak dibawah tanggung-jawab sekolah. Kurikulum tidak hanya meliputi bahan pelajaran tetapi meliputi seluruh kehidupan dalam kelas. Jadi hubungan sosial antara guru dan murid, metode mengajar, cara mengevaluasi termasuk kurikulum.

Dari penjelasan diatas penulis lebih setuju dengan undang-undang yakni kurikulum adalah seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan mengenai tujuan, isi dan bahan pelajaran serta cara yang digunakan sebagi pedoman penyelenggaraan kegiatan pembelajaran untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan tertentu.

  1. B.    Model Kurikulum Saylor, Alexander dan Lewis.

Dalam Peter F. Oliva (1992) The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis model calls for evaluating five components:

  1. The goals, subgoals, and objectives
  2. The program of education as a totality
  3. The specific segments of the education program
  4.  Instruction
  5. Evaluation program

The first, third, and fourth components contribute to the second-evaluating the program of education as a totally-by, among other ways, providing data that bear on the total program. In the figure 1., these relationships are shown by the three arrows between the boxes, which point toward second components. By including the fifth component-evaluation program-in their model, Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis suggest that it is necessary to evaluate the evaluation program itself. Now arrow is shown from the box labeled “evaluation program,” because the evaluation of the evaluation program is perceived as an independent operation that has implications for the entire evaluations process. As we look at the model, we encounter the terms “formative evaluation” (evaluation that take place during the component) and “summative evaluation” (evaluation that take place at the end of a component). Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s model calls attention to both formative and summative aspect of evaluation of each component.

 

Dalam model ini ditemui dua istilah penting yakni evaluasi formatif yang merujuk pada proses komponen dan evaluasi sumatif yang merujuk pada akhir komponen. Dalam Said Hamid Hasan (1998) dilaksanakan evaluasi formatif apabila hasil yang diperoleh dari kegiatan evaluasi di arahkan untuk memperbaiki bagian tertentu atau sebagian besar bagian kurikulum yang sedang dikembangkan. Jadi sama sekali bukan untuk mengganti kurikulum yang ada. Bagian yang diperbaiki itu dapat saja merupakan bagian dari kurikulum sebagai ide, rencana, kegiatan ataupun hasil. Perbaikan itu dapat dilakukan ketika melakukan evaluasi terhadap dimensi kurikulum lainnya. Misalnya, hasil evaluasi terhadap kurikulum sebagai kegiatan dapat dipergunakan untuk memperbaiki kurikulum sebagi rencana. hasil evaluasi terhadap kurikulum sebagai rencana dapat dipergunakan untuk memperbaiki kurikulum sebagai ide. Sesuatu yang perlu mendapat perhatian disini ialah fungsi formatif evaluasi dilaksanakan ketika kurikulum tersebut belum di anggap final. Pandangan terhadap apakah suatu kurikulum telah final atau belum ini sangat penting karena ia menimbulkan perbedaan pendapat mengenai pelaksanaan fungsi formatif evaluasi. Bagi mereka yang berpendapat bahwa suatu kurikulum telah dianggap final apabila telah dilaksanakan secara umum di sekolah maka fungsi formatif evaluasi hanya dilakukan pada waktu kurikulum sebagai rencana sedang di kembangkan. Setelah itu maka evluasi yang dilakukan haruslah dalam rangka fungsi sumatif.

Lebih lanjut dijelaskan bahwa evaluasi sumatif memberikan perhatiannya terhadap hasil dari suatu kurikulum. Oleh karena itu, fungsi sumatif  baru dapat dilaksanakan apabila kurikulum tersebut sudah dianggap selesai pengembangannya.

Selanjutnya sesuai dengan Peter F. Oliva (1992) marilah kita membahas satu per satu lima komponen yang haurs dievaluasi menurut Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis.

Evaluation of Goals, Subgoals, and Objectives. Evaluation of Goals, Subgoals, and Objectives are evaluated (validated) in their formative stages by

  1. Analysis of the needs of society
  2. Analysis of the needs of the individual
  3. Referring the goals, subgoals, and objectives to various groups
  4. Referring the goals, subgoals, and objectives to subject matter specialists
  5. Use the previous summative data

Curriculum planners must make their own analysis of whether a given goal, subgoal, or objective meets the needs of society and of the learners. They should seek the judgment of the students (if they are mature enough), teachers, parents, and other lay people and should further consult subject matter specialist to determine whether a given goal, subgoal, or objective is appropriate to the particular discipline. Data gains from previous tryouts of the program should be used to revise goals, subgoals and objective prior to the next trial. For practical purposes, instead of referring every goal, subgoal and objective to all the group mentioned, the curriculum planners may elect to refer the goals for validation to all groups and the subgoals and objectives for validation to just the teachers, subject matter specialists, and other curriculum specialists.

To clarify this validation process, let’s take an example the baking of bread in home economic class. Although we can certainly teach young people to bake bread and can evaluate their performance in this psychomotor skill, a more fundamental question must be answered: Should the baking of bread be included in the home economics curriculum?

The question is not so simple to answer as it might first appear. A number of questions must be raised before this particular item of the content can be validated.

Some of this questions are follows:

  • Does society (the community, the home, the family) have any need for bread bakers?
  • Is the skill of baking bread necessary or helpful to the individual?
  • Does teaching the skill make sense in the light of comparison of costs of the home-baked bread versus store bought-bread?
  • Does it require more energy to bake loaf of bread or home or for commercial bakers to produce loaves for sale?
  • Is there some overriding aesthetic or personal satisfaction in baking bread as opposed to purchasing it?
  • Is home-baked bread more nutrition than store bought-bread?
  • If baking bread is content item, what others items where left out of the curriculum so that it could be included? Which item is the most important?
  • Would experts in home economics assert that this content item is the essential to the home economics curriculum?
  • What percentage of families today bake their own bread?
  • Is this skill something that can and should be thought in the home rather than in school?
  • What has the success and failure of previous groups and students been in respect to this particular skill?

Sebagaimana telah kita lihat, tujuan (goals), subgoals, dan tujuan (objectives) menentukan program total sekolah. Mereka juga menentukan segmen program yang spesifik dan untuk instruksi. Pencapaian tujuan kurikuler (goals), subgoals, dan tujuan (objectives) diturunkan melalui evaluasi dari program total, segmen tertentu, dan instruksi.

Evaluation of Instruction. We examined  procedures for evaluating instruction in chapter 12. Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis recommended that after instructional goals and objectives are specified and validated as part of the formative evaluation process, the attendance conditions should be examined-a process referred by some evaluators are context evaluation. The learners’ total educational environment, the characteristic of the learners and the teachers, classroom instruction, and curriculum design are all evaluated and may affect the choice of instructional goals and objectives. The use of criterion-referenced and norm-referenced tests and other evaluative techniques provide formative and summative data on the success of instruction.

Jadi dalam hal ini setelah evaluasi goals, subgoals dan objective dilakukan maka selanjutnya yang harus di evaluasi ialah pembelajarannya yakni konteksnya yang berupa keseluruhan lingkungan pendidikan pembelajar, karakteristik dari peserta didik dan guru, instruksi kelas, dan desain kurikulum karena dapat mempengaruhi pilihan goal dan objektif.

Evaluation of Specific Segments. The specific segments of the program require evaluation. Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis included within their concept of specific segments the following: “the plan for organizing curriculum domains, the design or designs of curriculum for each domain, courses offered, other kinds of sets of learning opportunities provided, extra instruction activities sponsored, services provided students, and the kinds of informal relations the characterize the instructional climate.

Assessment data from district, state, and national source should be gathered by curriculum planners for purpose of formative evaluation of the specific program segments. At this stage data from the national assessment of educational progress, for instance, can prove helpful. If for example, NAEP (National Assesment Of Educational Progress) data revealed that nine-year-old children in urban areas of the southeast united states are more deficient in reading skills than children in comparable urban areas elsewhere in the country, intensive the examination of the reading program of the particular school system is essential. SAT and ACT (American College Testing) scores will provide clues. Assessment made by the international association for the evaluation of educational achievement (IEA) and the international assessment of educational progress (IAEP) may also provide helpful data. State and district assessments, focusing as they do on children of the state and locality, may be even more meaningful in this respect.

Jadi dalam mengevaluasi segmen tertentu yakni rencana untuk mengorganisir domain kurikulum, desain kurikulum untuk setiap domain, rangkaian pelajaran yang ditawarkan, jenis lain dari perlengkapan belajar yang disediakan, pembiayaan kegiatan pembelajara ekstra, layanan yang diberikan siswa, dan jenis-jenis hubungan informal yang mencirikan iklim instruksional diperlukan adanya data dari sekolah yang serupa, rekomendasi dari kelompok nasional, pengujian data, pertimbangan dari ahli dan lain sebagainya seperti yang telah dijelaskan di atas.

Evaluative Criteria. At this stage, too, the instruments of the Evaluative Criteria of the national study of school evaluation may be use to gather empirical data about the segments of which there exist criteria. These instruments asses the specific areas of study and other specific segments of the program, such as student activities, learning media, and student services. Revised periodically, this particular sets of standard is used by regional association of colleges and school of accrediting institutions. Consisting of rating scales and direct questions, these criteria permit faculties to analyze the principle related to the particular program, the evaluation techniques are used, plans for an improvement, and the current status.

English proposed a way of looking at specific segments of the curriculum through a technique referred to as “curriculum mapping” following this technique teachers can analyze the content that they present and the amount of time spent on each topic.

Curriculum planners must design summative measure to determine whether the curriculum goals and objective of the specific segments have been achieved. If it was desired, for example, that 75 percents of students in a senior high school be involved in at least one extra class activity, a simple head count would reveal whether this objective have been realized. As is the case when evaluating instruction, sometimes the objective itself is the evaluation item. On the other hand, if it is desired that a fourth-grade class whose members average two months below grade level in mathematics at the beginning of the year raise it scores to grade level by the end of the year, pretesting and posttesting will be necessary.

Dalam kriteria evaluasi ini perencana kurikulum dituntut untuk merancang pengukuran sumatif untuk menentukan apakah tujuan kurikulum dan tujuan segmen tertentu telah dicapai.

Evaluation of the Total Program. The functioning of the curriculum as a whole must be evaluated. The curriculum planners want to learn whether the goals and objectives of the total curriculum have been realized.

The aforementioned Evaluative Criteria provides opportunities for an overview of the schools curricula with general areas of evaluation, including sections on school and community, philosophy and Goals/Objectives, Curriculum/Design of Curriculum, Design for Learning, and Major Educational Priorities. The National Study for The School Evaluation, the source for the Evaluative Criteria, also makes available inventories for teachers, students, and parents to register their perceptions about the school and its programs.

Defining an audit as “an objective, external review of a record, event, process, product, act, belief, or motivation to commit an act,“ English adapted the concept of a management audit to curriculum evaluation. English describe the curriculum audit as “a process of examining documents an practices that exist within the peculiar institution called a ‘school’ in a given time, culture and society. From documents, interviews, and on-site visits, the auditor, sometimes an external agent, seeks to determine how well programs are functioning and whether they are cost-effective”

Studies of the needs of society and of young people speak to the question of the school’s total program. Unless one limits the school’s program to purely cognitive goals, some response should be made to some of the pressing problems of the day. These studies provide formative data for the curriculum planners. Surely problems like care of environment, conservation of natural resources, discriminations of all types, and the misuse of chemical substances should be examine by young people.

Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis recommended formative evaluation of the program of education as a totality by means of “judgments of component persons, research data on human needs, recommendations of study groups.” They recommended summative evaluation of the educational program through “surveys; follow-up studies; judgments of scholars, citizens, and students; test data.”

Summative evaluation of the total program is conducted in several ways. Empirical data are gathered to determine if curriculum objectives have been accomplished. School-wide test data are analyzed. Follow-up studies reveal the success or lack of success of young people after leaving the school. Finally surveys ask teachers, parents, students, and other to evaluate the school’s program.

Pada dasarnya fungsi ini dilakukan untuk melihat sejauh mana tujuan dan sasaran kurikulum secara total telah diwujudkan. Dalam mengevaluasi secara formatif Saylor, Alexander, dan Lewis merekomendasikan penilaian terhadap komponen orang, data penelitian pada kebutuhan manusia, dan rekomendasi dari kelompok belajar. Untuk mengevaluasi secara sumaatif mereka merekomendasikan untuk melakukannya dengan beberapa cara yakni data empiris dikumpulkan untuk menentukan apakah tujuan kurikulum telah tercapai. data uji Sekolah-secara luas dianalisis. Tindak lanjut studi mengungkapkan keberhasilan atau kekurangan keberhasilan orang muda setelah meninggalkan sekolah. Akhirnya survei menanyakan kepada guru, orangtua, siswa, dan lainnya untuk mengevaluasi program sekolah.

Evaluation of the Evaluation Program. The program for evaluating the curriculum should be continuously assessed. Judgments about how evaluation will be conducted should be made before an innovation or change is put into practice. The techniques for ongoing evaluation and final evaluation must be carefully planned and followed.

Sometimes it is beneficial to enlist the service of an evaluation specialist to review the evaluation techniques proposed by the curriculum planners. Questions must be answered as to whether the instruments to be used are reliable and valid; whether the evaluation program is comprehensive, covering all the dimensions of curriculum to be evaluated; and whether the procedures are appropriate and possible. Reactions and suggestions about the evaluation procedures should be obtained from those who are most intimately exposed to them-the students and teachers.

If research studies are to be conducted, specialists inside or outside the system should review the proposed research techniques to determine whether they meet the standards of acceptable research.

When data are ultimately gathered, the planners may feel the need to request the help of evaluation specialists to treat and interpret the data. It must now be determined whether all the variables have been considered and appropriately controlled and whether the evaluation measures are designed to asses the appropriate objectives. For example, a cognitive test of American history will not assess student performance of citizenship skills. The ability to recite rules of grammar does not guarantee skill in the writing.

When flaws are discovered in the evaluation program, changes should be made. Conclusions reached as a result of research and evaluation are often attacked, not on their substance, but on the evaluation process by which they were reached.

For example, why is it that we can find skeptics for almost every curricular innovation ever tried? You name it-core curriculum; competency-based education; open education; team teaching; nongradedness; the once new now old math; and so on-and we can find criticism of it. Some who object do so because they are not convinced that the evaluations techniques purported to have been used actually proved the superiority of innovation. Students of curriculum might well examine the process for evaluating almost any program, change of program or innovation in their school system-past or present-and at any level to find out if curricula were evaluated rigorously. Students are also likely to discover many innovations evaluated on the basis of perceived opinion of success (without adequate data), participants’ feelings about the program (like/dislike), change of pace (variety of a spice), pleasured of  being involved (Hawthorne effect), administrative assertion (“I say it works”), cost (if it was expensive undertaking, it has to be good) public relations (“look what we’ve done for your/ our young people”), and perceived leadership (“we’re in the vanguard,” also known as “on the cutting edge”).

Jadi inti dari evaluasi evaluasi program ialah program untuk mengevaluasi kurikulum harus terus dinilai. Penilaian tentang bagaimana evaluasi akan dilakukan harus dibuat sebelum sebuah inovasi atau perubahan dimasukkan ke dalam praktek. Teknik-teknik untuk evaluasi berkelanjutan dan evaluasi akhir harus direncanakan dan diikuti secara hati-hati. Serta Ketika kekurangan ditemukan dalam evaluasi program, perubahan harus dilakukan.

BAB III

PENUTUP

Dari pembahasan dapat disimpulkan bahwa yang dimaksud dengan evaluasi ialah menentukan apa yang perlu diperbaiki dan untuk menyediakan dasar bagi yang mempengaruhi perbaikan. Sedangkan yang dimaksud dengan kurikulum adalah seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan mengenai tujuan, isi dan bahan pelajaran serta cara yang digunakan sebagi pedoman penyelenggaraan kegiatan pembelajaran untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan tertentu. untuk menguji apakah kurikulum berjalan dengan baik atau tidak dilakukan evaluasi tanpa evaluasi, maka tidak akan mengetahui bagaimana kondisi kurikulum tersebut dalam rancangan, pelaksanaan serta hasilnya.

Model kurikulum menurut Saylor, Alexander dan Lewis memperhatikan lima komponen untuk di evaluasi yakni:

  1. Goals, subgoals dan objectives
  2. Program pendidikan secara keseluruhan
  3. Segmen khusus dari program pendidikan
  4. Pembelajaran
  5. Evaluasi program

Daftar Pustaka

Hamalik, Oemar. 1993. Evaluasi Kurikulum. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya

Hasan, Said Hamid. 1988. Evaluasi Kurikulum. Jakarta: Depdikbud

Muslich, Masnur. 2007. KTSP Dasar Pemahaman dan Pengembangan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara

Nasution. 2003. Asas Asas Kurikulum. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara

Oliva, Peter F. 1992. Developing the Curriculum. HarperCollins Publisher: New York

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